Saturday, July 28, 2012

The evolution of fashion in the twentieth century (III): from 1930 to 1940

Vogue 1938

The 30's were years marked especially by the economic crisis and the Great Depression. These were years in which Hollywood has consolidated its status as a trendsetter, and are its stars that mark the aesthetic tastes of women around the world plucked eyebrows, blonde hair and waves, athletic bodies and thin.

It imposes a long silhouette, the use of dark colors, the sleeves make new prints volume and influenced by art movements such as Surrealism and Dadaism, assuming in many respects true aesthetic revolutions, even to the covers of Vogue as that heads the post created by Salvador Dali.


But there are years of small revolutions. First seen timidly suits with pants or the wearing of male apparel more common in women (like this dress Elsa Schiaparelli) boosted by the rise of the suffragette movement seeking equality, and although it was still very strange to see a woman with pants, jacket and skirt suits were tailored itself often with a view much closer to men's tailoring and is being introduced by the use of culottes.

Elsa Schiaparelli


Born in Rome in 1890, within a wealthy family who wanted to make her a good housewife lady flees from this life in 1914 when she married Count Wilhelm de Wendt Kerlor scandal in London to his family. A marriage that lasts a short (separated in 1920 after a child in common) but allows on their way through New York and Paris enter into the intellectual and artistic scene of the time cutting edge.


In 1927, in Paris and sponsored by Paul Poiret launched its first major success, a black knit sweater with a trompe-l'oeil white noose around his neck, which will kick off to "pour le Sport" a collection that would collect comfortable and sporty spirit of American women during their years desubrió Yorkers and created a concept, that of "casual wear" that still continues vigente.Por course this collection was a tremendous success in the U.S. and became the great Hollywood of the time as Katharine Hepburn and Greta Garbo in loyal customers.

In 1934, installed at 21 Place Vendôme and baptized his tent decorated by Jean Michel Franck and Salvardor Dalí as "Schiap Shop". These were years of great creative ferment: the pagoda sleeves, garments inspired by surrealism which everyday objects were separated from their usual environment and became a shoe on a hat or pockets in drawers, the discovery of the rack as an alternative closure applies garments dressed in his famous skeleton belonging to the legendary collection of 1938 inspired by the circus (like the dress tear), the launch of her perfume Shocking! whose bottle was inspired by Mae West's body and that homenajearía Jean Paul Gaultier Classique in his famous and collaborations with Dali in the design of some items make it the fashion designer in Paris with Coco Chanel, with whom he had a deep rivalry despite moving almost in the same environments .


But World War II cut short this triumphant career, and in 1939 fled to the U.S. to re designed in 1945 and continue until 1954. During this second stage, Hubert de Givenchy working several years at your service.

Marcel Rochas

Two covers of Vogue in the 30's, it encumbraban as the designer for the youth of the time and it fit perfectly in the interests of the time: sports, travel and especially movies. Born in 1902, Marcel Rochas started his career in 1925, and early on demonstrated a lover of the female form. Far from the trends of the time still used corsets and mermaid cut dresses accentuate the curves of women.


Like his contemporaries he was influenced by painters such as Braque and Eluard or showed interest in new materials, creating even a swimsuit consisting of cellophane and latex in 1934.
But in 1955 dies and his wife Hélène will continue with the firm settling success especially in its perfumes, the great value of the brand.

Nina Ricci


He opens his shop at number 20 Rue de Capucines in Paris in 1932, as did Vionnet used to work their designs on mannequins. True to a romantic, feminine and with great devotion for the flowers, their designs quickly penetrated an audience that wanted a simple but elegant while still being refined.

A spirit that today Peter Copping, the current designer of the firm, has maintained.



His name has now fallen into oblivion, but the moment was one of the most powerful man in fashion. In 1929, the U.S. is stepping down as editor in chief of Vogue Paris to fulfill his dream of becoming a designer. His style succeeds quickly, especially when it became the favorite of his compatriot, Wallis Simpson, considered the most elegant woman of the time and chose to make the dress that she would marry the Duke of Windsor, which can be on these lines, and unfortunately the years have made you lose your original shade of blue, known as "Wallis blue".

Like all in 1939 was beaten by the onset of World War II, but his collection of big news that year presented regarding the current trend: skirts, wasp waists, ... opening the way to a trend 10 years later explode with the New Look of Dior.

Photos | The Metropolitan Museum of Art , Vogue, Rochas , Gtres
In Jared | The evolution of fashion in the twentieth century (II): from 1920 to 1930

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